Fundamentals of GD&T Textbook – Y14.5M-1994

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Fundamentals of GD&T Textbook – Y14.5M-1994



The Fundamentals of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing textbook by Alex Krulikowski covers the basic rules, definitions, and concepts of GD&T. The book’s 12 chapters are split into 28 goals, each focusing on a major topic that must be mastered to be fluent in the fundamentals of geometric tolerancing.

Textbook Topics
Each of the textbook’s 28 goals are defined and supported by a set of performance objectives that describe specific, observable, measurable actions that the student must accomplish to demonstrate mastery of the topic. This learning method is a key to success for both the student and the instructor and is part of what makes this the most practical and easy-to-use GD&T textbook on the market.

Chapter goals include:


  • Understand what an engineering drawing is
  • Understand why geometric tolerancing is superior to coordinate tolerancing
  • Understand eight key terms and how they affect the interpretation of a drawing
  • Understand the modifiers and symbols used in geometric tolerancing
  • Understand Rule #1 and Rule #2
  • Understand the concepts of basic dimensions, virtual condition, inner and outer boundary, worst-case boundary, and bonus tolerance
  • Interpret flatness
  • Interpret straightness
  • Interpret circularity
  • Interpret cylindricity
  • Understand the datum system (planar datums)
  • Interpret datum targets
  • Interpret feature of size datum specifications (RFS)
  • Interpret feature of size datum specifications(MMC)
  • Interpret the perpendicularity control
  • Understand the fundamental concepts of tolerance of position: the definition and conventions, the advantages, and the basic theories
  • Interpret RFS and MMC tolerance of position applications
  • Draw cartoon gages for tolerance of position (MMC) applications
  • Interpret tolerance of position special applications
  • Calculate distances on a part dimensioned with tolerance of position
  • Calculate tolerance of position tolerance values using the fixed and floating fastener formulas
  • Interpret the concentricity control
  • Interpret the symmetry control
  • Interpret the circular runout control
  • Interpret the total runout control
  • Understand profile tolerancing
  • Interpret the profile of a surface control
  • Interpret profile of a line control


This book is a valuable tool for: Designers; product, manufacturing, and quality engineers; CMM operators; checkers

Skill level needed: A basic understanding of engineering drawings is required.

Format: The Fundamentals of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing is based on the ASME Y14.5M-1994 Standard. The goals and performance objectives of each chapter are clearly described to keep you focused on the material. At the end of each chapter, you will find a number of exercises to reinforce the material once you have learned it.

The Fundamentals of GD&T textbook (ASME Y14.5M-1994) is only available to the general public. It is not sold to educational institutions.


Why do we need Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)?

GD&T will save your company money by providing consistent interpretations, increasing manufacturing tolerances and promoting efficiency and quality throughout the engineering, manufacturing and quality functions.